I get that render in a nutshell renders a template I want. For example when I want the site to render login_form I can use it I however do not understand what $values  does
Well, because render calls extract on that second argument, an array, before requiring header.php , header.php ends up having access to a variable called $title
I dont really understand what this means. I can what it can do I can use this to change the title for my liking
render("portfolio.php", ["title" => "Portfolio"]);
Does render give portfolio an associative array called title with the value Portfolio?
Is the second argument required? Can anyone explain it to me?