2

I don't understand how the program knows where in the infile it is. I am imagining a sort of cursor that automatically moves to the end of what has been read by fread (is this correct?).

How does copy.c know which RGBTRIPLE to save in 'triple'? I understand that the for loop iterates a certain number of times, but I don't understand how it knows which scanline it is supposed to be iterating over or even which pixel it is supposed to be reading and rewriting.

Here is the section of code that I am having a hard time with:

 // iterate over infile's scanlines
    for (int i = 0, biHeight = abs(bi.biHeight); i < biHeight; i++)
    {
        // iterate over pixels in scanline
        for (int j = 0; j < bi.biWidth; j++)
        {
            // temporary storage
            RGBTRIPLE triple;

            // read RGB triple from infile
            fread(&triple, sizeof(RGBTRIPLE), 1, inptr);

            // write RGB triple to outfile
            fwrite(&triple, sizeof(RGBTRIPLE), 1, outptr);
        }

        // skip over padding, if any
        fseek(inptr, padding, SEEK_CUR);

        // then add it back (to demonstrate how)
        for (int k = 0; k < padding; k++)
        {
            fputc(0x00, outptr);
        }
    }

In case it is useful for explaining, I've included the whole copy.c file.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#include "bmp.h"

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    // ensure proper usage
    if (argc != 3)
    {
        printf("Usage: ./copy infile outfile\n");
        return 1;
    }

    // remember filenames
    char* infile = argv[1];
    char* outfile = argv[2];

    // open input file 
    FILE* inptr = fopen(infile, "r");
    if (inptr == NULL)
    {
        printf("Could not open %s.\n", infile);
        return 2;
    }

    // open output file
    FILE* outptr = fopen(outfile, "w");
    if (outptr == NULL)
    {
        fclose(inptr);
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not create %s.\n", outfile);
        return 3;
    }

    // read infile's BITMAPFILEHEADER
    BITMAPFILEHEADER bf;
    fread(&bf, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER), 1, inptr);

    // read infile's BITMAPINFOHEADER
    BITMAPINFOHEADER bi;
    fread(&bi, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER), 1, inptr);

    // ensure infile is (likely) a 24-bit uncompressed BMP 4.0
    if (bf.bfType != 0x4d42 || bf.bfOffBits != 54 || bi.biSize != 40 || 
        bi.biBitCount != 24 || bi.biCompression != 0)
    {
        fclose(outptr);
        fclose(inptr);
        fprintf(stderr, "Unsupported file format.\n");
        return 4;
    }

    // write outfile's BITMAPFILEHEADER
    fwrite(&bf, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER), 1, outptr);

    // write outfile's BITMAPINFOHEADER
    fwrite(&bi, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER), 1, outptr);

    // determine padding for scanlines
    int padding =  (4 - (bi.biWidth * sizeof(RGBTRIPLE)) % 4) % 4;

    // iterate over infile's scanlines
    for (int i = 0, biHeight = abs(bi.biHeight); i < biHeight; i++)
    {
        // iterate over pixels in scanline
        for (int j = 0; j < bi.biWidth; j++)
        {
            // temporary storage
            RGBTRIPLE triple;

            // read RGB triple from infile
            fread(&triple, sizeof(RGBTRIPLE), 1, inptr);

            // write RGB triple to outfile
            fwrite(&triple, sizeof(RGBTRIPLE), 1, outptr);
        }

        // skip over padding, if any
        fseek(inptr, padding, SEEK_CUR);

        // then add it back (to demonstrate how)
        for (int k = 0; k < padding; k++)
        {
            fputc(0x00, outptr);
        }
    }

    // close infile
    fclose(inptr);

    // close outfile
    fclose(outptr);

    // that's all folks
    return 0;
}
3

Without reviewing your code, let me try to explain. Yes, you've got the idea. fread() does cause the file pointer to track location. Let's say you have a file pointer called inptr. Next, let's say that inptr is pointing at byte 100 in your file. You issue an fread(&triple, 3, 1, inptr); command. This says read 1 block of 3 bytes - a total of 3 bytes. After the command is executed, the pointer then points at byte 103 in the file. It's that simple.

Any fread() command will read starting at wherever the file pointer is at that moment. It will then do the read and reposition the pointer to the first byte past what was just read. Again, it's that simple.

Remember though, it's up to you to understand where the file pointer is moving to, and, if necessary, to reposition the pointer if you are doing something other than sequential reads or writes - like, for instance, processing a line of pixels multiple times. ;-)

If this answers your question, please click the check mark to accept. Let's keep up on forum housekeeping. ;-)

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