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The text[i] in (text[i] - 97) is getting converted to int when we have assigned string to it. //this part. all the others are int. How text[i] is assigning itself as int here?? if(islower(text[i])) { printf("%c", ((((text[i] - 97)+key)%26)+97));

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All chars can be treated as integers. Math and other operations can be performed on them. Remember, a char is stored as an ASCII value representation, so the math char is automatically cast as an int and the ASCII value of the char is used in the operation.

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